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Science

Our Vision at Corporation Road

At Corporation Road, we believe that by studying science, children will develop a sense of the world around them and how it works. We aim to use science as a tool to help children work together and begin to build the collaborative skills that they will continue to use as they grow older.

Our curriculum aims to teach our pupils about the natural world as well as imparting the knowledge that they can take into their secondary education. We strongly believe that learning is better when it is kept simple and through discussions, demonstrations, experiences and ‘hands on’ learning’, children will be better prepared to retain the knowledge and skills that they have been taught.

DomainsKey Concepts
Earth and SpaceIdentifying and Naming, Moons, Spherical Bodies, Day and Night, Day Length and the Seasons,
Light and SoundIdentifying and Naming. Phenomena, Physical Processes, Classifying, Comparing and Safety
Seasonal ChangesIdentifying and Naming, Effects of the Weather, Recording the Weather, The Seasons and Day Length
ForcesIdentifying and Naming, Physical Processes, Phenomena, Testing, Comparing and Classification
ElectricityIdentifying and Naming, Series Circuits, Circuit Symbols, Current and Voltage, Conductors and Insulators and Safety
Substance, Matter and MaterialsIdentifying and Naming, Classification, Uses, Physical Processes, Physical Properties and Comparisons
PlantsIdentifying and Naming, Classification, Plant Parts and Their Functions, Habitats and Adaptation, Growth and Survival, Life Cycles, Seasonal Changes and Comparisons
Animals Including HumansIdentifying and Naming, Classification, Habitats, Adaptation and Interdependence, Growth, Health and Survival, Diet and Teeth, The Body, Life Cycles and Comparing
Evolution and InheritanceIdentifying and Naming, Inheritance, Evolution, Adaptation, Fossils and The Future
Working ScientificallyAsking and Answering Questions, Investigating, Observing, Equipment and Measuring, Identifying and Classifying, Recording and Reporting on Findings, Analysing Data and Drawing Conclusions

Science Progression Map

Physics

The end-point for physics is that children know that it is the study of things around them as well as energy and forces. Children should name and be able to identify the eight planets of the solar system. From their learning, children will understand the force of gravity and as well as how other forces work on objects moving through the air, water and along a surface. Our children will learn how to create simple circuits and understand key terms such as current and voltage. Finally, children will have a working understanding of light and sound.

Chemistry

The end-point for chemistry at Corporation Road is for our children to understand that it is the study of what everything is made of and how it works. We want children to be able to understand the difference between a solid, a liquid and a gas and be able to name examples of them independently. Children should know the names of different physical properties of materials and identify how this can impact on how a material is used in everyday life. Finally, children should know how these different materials help during physical processes.

Biology

The end-point for biology at Corporation Road is for our children to understand that it is the study of life and living things. We want our children to be able to name a range of animals and plant life from their local environment but also the wider world.Building upon this, children will also be able to know the difference between vertebrates and invertebrates and be able to identify them and their features. Additionally, through their studies, children should understand the concept of adaption andwhy itis important for a species to survive. Finally, we want our children to understand evolution and be able to give examples where this has taken place in an animal or plant species.

Working Scientifically

The end-point for working scientifically involves the children being able to apply a number of skills when completing an experiment or an investigation independently. These skills involve the children being able to take accurate measurements when using different scientific equipment. When explaining their findings, children should be able to use the correct scientific language to demonstrate their understanding. For children to develop as scientists, they will be able to identify the dependent and independent variables and understand what these terms means. Finally, they will be able to have the knowledge and ability to record data and results using the appropriate recording tool.

National Curriculum

During years 1 and 2, pupils should be taught to use the following practical scientific methods, processes and skills through the teaching of the programme of study content:

  • Asking simple questions and recognising that they can be answered in different ways.
  • Observing closely, using simple equipment.
  • Performing simple tests.
  • Identifying and classifying.
  • Using their observations and ideas to suggest answers to questions.
  • Gathering and recording data to help in answering questions.

During years 3 and 4, pupils should be taught to use the following practical scientific methods, processes and skills through the teaching of the programme of study content:

  • Asking relevant questions and using different types of scientific enquiries to answer them
  • Setting up simple practical enquiries, comparative and fair tests
  • Making systematic and careful observations and, where appropriate, taking accurate measurements using standard units, using a range of equipment, including thermometers and data loggers.
  • Gathering, recording, classifying and presenting data in a variety of ways to help in answering questions.
  • Recording findings using simple scientific language, drawings, labelled diagrams, keys, bar charts, and tables
  • Reporting on findings from enquiries, including oral and written explanations, displays or presentations of results and conclusions
  • Using results to draw simple conclusions, make predictions for new values, suggest improvements and raise further questions
  • Identifying differences, similarities or changes related to simple scientific ideas and processes.
  • Using straightforward scientific evidence to answer questions or to support their findings.

During years 5 and 6, pupils should be taught to use the following practical scientific methods, processes and skills through the teaching of the programme of study content:

  • Planning different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including recognising and controlling variables where necessary.
  • Taking measurements, using a range of scientific equipment, with increasing accuracy and precision, taking repeat readings when appropriate.
  • Recording data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams and labels, classification keys, tables, scatter graphs, bar and line graphs.
  • Using test results to make predictions to set up further comparative and fair tests.
  • Reporting and presenting findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations of and a degree of trust in results, in oral and written forms such as displays and other presentations.
  • Identifying scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas or arguments.
EYFS

Earth and Space

Identifying and Naming

Moons

Spherical Bodies

Day and Night

Day Length and the Seasons

Light and Sound

Identifying and Naming

Phenomena

Physical Processes

Classifying

Comparing

Safety

Seasonal Change

Identifying and Naming

Effects of Weather

Recording the Weather

The Seasons

Day Length

Forces

Identifying and Naming

Physical Processes

Phenomena

Testing

Comparing

Classification

Electricity

Identifying and Naming

Series Circuits

Circuit Symbols

Current and Voltage

Conductors and Insulators

Safety

Substance, Matter and Materials

Early Learning Goal: Children know about similarities and differences in relation to places, objects, materials and living things. They talk about the features of their own immediate environment and how environments might vary from one another. They make observations of animals and plants and explain why some things occur, and talk about changes.

Identifying and Naming

Name a basic range of everyday materials.

Classification

Simply group and sort materials.

Uses

Identify a material and say what an object is made from.

Physical Processes

Identify some materials that help physical processes. E.g. hot and cold.

Physical Properties

Explore textures to describe properties using every day language.

Comparisons

Compare 2 materials for their performance at a simple task.

Plants

Looks closely at similarities, differences, patterns and change.

Identifying and Naming

Identify and name some common flowers and trees found growing in the locality.

Classification

Sort flowers and trees.

Plant Parts and Their Functions

Identify the basic structural parts of common flowering plants and trees, including root, stem,leaves, flowers.

Habitats and Adaptation

Talk about and investigate a habitat.

Growth and Survival

Care for a growing seedling, observing growth.

Life Cycles

Explore seeds.

Seasonal Changes

Describe decay and changes in plants.

Comparisons

Name and compare familiar plants.

Animals Including Humans

Identification and Naming

Identify and name a range of common animals from wild, pets, insects, farm and sea.

Classification

Classify and sort familiar animals according to their category from wild, insects, farm or sea.

Habitats, Adaptation and Interdependance

Name animals living in a range of familiar environments, such as their home or school grounds.

Growth, Health and Survival

Shows care and concern for living things and the environment.

Diet and Teeth

Talk about food that common animals eat.

The Body

Verbally name parts of the human body.

Life Cycles

Begin to understand the life cycle of familiar animals.

Comparing

Compare animals by simple features.

Evolution and Inheritance

Identifying and Naming

Inheritance

Evolution

Adaptation

Fossils

The Future

Substance, Matter and Materials

Talks about why things happen and how things work

Asking and Answering Questions

Use everyday language to ask and answer a scientific question.

Investigating

Explore and investigate independently.

Observing

Make observations of animals and plants.

Equipment and Measuring

Explore using simple equipment. E.g. a ruler

Identifying and Classifying

Sort and group objects, materials and living things, with help, according to simple observational features.

Recording and Reporting on Findings

Talk simply about their findings.

Analysing Data

Using everyday language to answer a question on given data.

Drawing Conclusions

Talk simply about what they have found out.

Year 1

Earth and Space

Identifying and Naming

Moons

Spherical Bodies

Day and Night

Day Length and the Seasons

Light and Sound

Identifying and Naming

Phenomena

Physical Processes

Classifying

Comparing

Safety

Seasonal Changes

Pupils should be taught to:

  • observe changes across the 4 seasons
  • observe and describe weather associated with the seasons and how day length varies

Identifying and Naming

Name a range of different types of weather from pictures or sounds.

Effects of Weather

Describe some positive and negative effects of the weather for ourselves and our environment.

Recording the Weather

Observe and record the daily weather on a chart or in a table.

The Seasons

Broadly assign different weather types to seasons.

Day Length

Describe how day length changes over a year, from experience and know how it affects their lives

Forces

Identifying and Naming

Physical Processes

Phenomena

Testing

Comparing

Classification

Electricity

Identifying and Naming

Identify and talk about products that use electricity.

Series Circuits

Circuit Symbols

Current and Voltage

Conductors and Insulators

Safety

Recognise that electricity can be dangerous.

Substance, Matter and Materials

Pupils should be taught to:

  • distinguish between an object and the material from which it is made
  • identify and name a variety of everyday materials, including wood, plastic, glass, metal, water, and rock
  • describe the simple physical properties of a variety of everyday materials
  • compare and group together a variety of everyday materials on the basis of their simple physical properties

Identifying and Naming

Name a range of everyday materials, including wood,plastic, metal, rock and glass.

Classification

Group and sort materials according to their simple physical properties.

Uses

Identify the material an object is made from, suggesting why it is made from that material.

Physical Processes

Identify some materials that help physical processes (e.g. woollen fabric keeps us warm).

Physical Properties

Describe properties of a material using everyday language or simple scientific vocabulary (e.g.hard/soft or bendy/not bendy).

Comparisons

Compare two or more different materials for their performance at a particular task (e.g. mopping up a spill).

Plants

Pupils should be taught to:

  • identify and name a variety of common wild and garden plants, including deciduous and evergreen trees
  • identify and describe the basic structure of a variety of common flowering plants, including trees
  • identify and name a variety of common animals including fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals
  • identify and name a variety of common animals that are carnivores, herbivores and omnivores
  • describe and compare the structure of a variety of common animals (fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals including pets)
  • identify, name, draw and label the basic parts of the human body and say which part of the body is associated with each sense

Identifying and Naming

Identify and name common flowers and trees found growing in the locality

Classification

Sort trees into groups to show those that are evergreen and those that are deciduous.

Plant Parts and Their Functions

Identify the basic structural parts of common flowering plants and trees, including root, stem, stalk,leaves, flowers, bulb, fruit, seeds and trunk.

Habitats and Adaptation

Identify their locality as a habitat for living things.

Growth and Survival

Care for a growing seedling, observing and describing its growth.

Life Cycles

Identify the seeds, as a part of a plant, that makes a whole new plant.

Seasonal Changes

Describe how plants change overtime, including seasonal change (leaves fall off, blossom, buds opening).

Comparisons

Name, compare and contrast familiar plants according to their observable features.

Animals Including Humans

Identification and Naming

Identify and name a range of common animals from the local and wider environment.

Classification

Classify and sort familiar animals according to whether they are invertebrates, fish, amphibians,reptiles, birds or mammals.

Habitats, Adaptation and Interdependance

Name animals living in a range of familiar environments, such as their homes, woodland or school grounds.

Growth, Health and Survival

Explain how to take care of an animal from the local habitat.

Diet and Teeth

Identify whether an animal is a carnivore, herbivore or omnivore and how we might know this from their physical appearance.

The Body

Draw and label basic parts of the human body, including those related to the senses.

Life Cycles

Describe in simple terms the life cycle of a familiar animal such as a frog, butterfly or human.

Comparing

Compare animals that are kept as pets, knowing which group they belong to.

Evolution and Inheritance

Identifying and Naming

Inheritance

Evolution

Adaptation

Fossils

The Future

Substance, Matter and Materials

During years 1 and 2, pupils should be taught to use the following practical scientific methods, processes and skills through the teaching of the programme of study content:

  • asking simple questions and recognising that they can be answered in different ways
  • observing closely, using simple equipment
  • performing simple tests
  • identifying and classifying
  • using their observations and ideas to suggest answers to questions
  • gathering and recording data to help in answering questions

Asking and Answering Question

Use everyday language/begin to use simple scientific words to ask or answer a scientific question.

Investigating

Follow instructions to complete a simple test individually or in a group.

Observing

Observe objects, materials and living things and describe what they see.

Equipment and Measuring

Use simple, non-standard measurements in a practical task.

Identifying and Classifying

Sort and group objects, materials and living things, with help,according to simple observational features.

Recording and Reporting on Findings

Talk about their findings and explain what they have found out.

Analysing Data

Use every day or simple scientific language to ask and/or answer a question on given data.

Drawing Conclusions

Explain, with help, what they think they have found out.

Year 2

Earth and Space

Identifying and Naming

Moons

Spherical Bodies

Day and Night

Day Length and the Seasons

Light and Sound

Identifying and Naming

Phenomena

Physical Processes

Classifying

Comparing

Safety

Seasonal Changes

  • observe changes across the 4 seasons
  • observe and describe weather associated with the seasons and how day length varies

Identifying and Naming

Identify less familiar weather conditions that are more common in other parts of the world.

Effects of Weather

Explain how and why the weather influences our choice of clothing and affects what we can do.

Recording the Weather

Identify patterns and similarities and differences within recorded weather over a given period of time.

The Seasons

Explain how animals or plants are affected by the seasons,using a specific animal or plant as an example.

Day Length

Make comparisons to other parts of the world where day length changes to a greater or lesser degree, such as Arctic or equatorial regions.

Forces

Identifying and Naming

Physical Processes

Phenomena

Testing

Comparing

Classification

Electricity

Identifying and Naming

Series Circuits

Create working circuits in the context of D&T (e.g. to light a bulb or work a buzzer).

Circuit Symbols

Current and Voltage

Conductors and Insulators

Safety

Identify dangerous scenarios from pictures or video clips

Substance, Matter and Materials

Pupils should be taught to:

  • identify and compare the suitability of a variety of everyday materials, including wood, metal, plastic, glass, brick, rock, paper and cardboard for particular uses
  • find out how the shapes of solid objects made from some materials can be changed by squashing, bending, twisting and stretching

Identifying and Naming

Identify the uses of everyday materials in a familiar location(e.g. school or home), recording their findings.

Classification

Sort and grade a range of materials for a specific property(e.g. smoothness).

Uses

Identify and describe the range of materials that can be used to make a single given object (e.g.cup, chair, table or shelter).

Physical Processes

Describe how the shape of some materials can be changed by twisting, bending, squashing or stretching.

Physical Properties

Relate a material’s physical properties to its uses (e.g.describe or demonstrate how a material can be unsuitable fora given task due to its ability to be changed by squashing and bending).

Comparisons

Compare significant individuals who have developed useful materials (e.g. Charles Macintosh or John Dunlop) and decide which individual’s material is of most use to them.

Plants

Pupils should be taught to:

  • observe and describe how seeds and bulbs grow into mature plants
  • find out and describe how plants need water, light and a suitable temperature to grow and stay healthy
  • explore and compare the differences between things that are living, dead, and things that have never been alive
  • identify that most living things live in habitats to which they are suited and describe how different habitats provide for the basic needs of different kinds of animals and plants, and how they depend on each other
  • identify and name a variety of plants and animals in their habitats, including microhabitats
  • describe how animals obtain their food from plants and other animals, using the idea of a simple food chain, and identify and name different sources of food
  • notice that animals, including humans, have offspring which grow into adults
  • find out about and describe the basic needs of animals, including humans, for survival (water, food and air)
  • describe the importance for humans of exercise, eating the right amounts of different types of food, and hygiene

Identifying and Naming

Identify what eats plants as a food source and recognise simple food chains.

Classification

Sort seeds and bulbs into groups according to physical features.

Plant Parts and Their Functions

Describe the different plant parts and give examples of different foods that we eat which are derived from these plant parts, for example rhubarb (stem), carrot (root).

Habitats and Adaptation

Explain how plants are suited to their habitats and give examples of plants growing in different habitats.

Growth and Survival

Describe how plants grow,identifying what a plant needs for healthy growth and survival.

Life Cycles

Recognise that plants produce seeds in order to reproduce and generate new plants.

Seasonal Changes

Describe how bulbs help plants to grow in winter.

Comparisons

Make comparisons between seeds or bulbs grown in different conditions (e.g. with and without light or water).

Animals Including Humans

Identification and Naming

Name and match animals to their offspring.

Classification

Sort and classify things according to whether they are dead, alive or have never been alive.

Habitats, Adaptation and Interdependance

Define the terms ‘habitat’ and ‘micro-habitat’, giving examples of animals that live in each place.

Growth, Health and Survival

Identify the basic needs of animals and humans for survival, including good nutrition and regular exercise.

Diet and Teeth

Construct a simple food chain that includes humans as the top consumer.

The Body

Explain simply how humans and some familiar animals change as they grow.

Life Cycles

Recognise the need for animals and humans to grow and reproduce.Describe the life cycles of some common animals and humans.

Comparing

Compare the living things in familiar habitats with the living things in a less familiar habitat.

Evolution and Inheritance

Identifying and Naming

Inheritance

Evolution

Adaptation

Fossils

The Future

Substance, Matter and Materials

During years 1 and 2, pupils should be taught to use the following practical scientific methods, processes and skills through the teaching of the programme of study content:

  • asking simple questions and recognising that they can be answered in different ways
  • observing closely, using simple equipment
  • performing simple tests
  • identifying and classifying
  • using their observations and ideas to suggest answers to questions
  • gathering and recording data to help in answering questions

Asking and Answering Question

Suggest ideas, ask simple questions and know that they can be answered/investigated indifferent ways including simple secondary sources, such as books and video clips.

Investigating

Do things in the correct order when performing a simple test and begin to recognise when something is unfair.

Observing

Observe something closely and describe changes over time.

Equipment and Measuring

Use simple equipment, such as hand lenses or egg timers to take measurements, make observations and carry out simple tests.

Identifying and Classifying

Decide, with help, how to group materials, living things and objects,noticing changes over time and beginning to see patterns.

Recording and Reporting on Findings

Gather data, record and talk about their findings, in a range of ways,using simple scientific vocabulary.

Analysing Data

Identify simple patterns and/or relationships using simple comparative language.

Drawing Conclusions

Use simple scientific language to explain what they have found out.

Year 3

Earth and Space

Identifying and Naming

Moons

Spherical Bodies

Day and Night

Day Length and the Seasons

Light and Sound

Pupils should be taught to:

  • recognise that they need light in order to see things and that dark is the absence of light notice that light is reflected from surfaces
  • recognise that light from the sun can be dangerous and that there are ways to protect their eyes
  • recognise that shadows are formed when the light from a light source is blocked by an opaque object
  • find patterns in the way that the size of shadows change

Identifying and Naming

Identify that light is reflected from surfaces, using equipment such as mirrors to demonstrate.

Phenomena

Recognise that dark is the absence of light and describe how light behaves.

Physical Processes

Explain that when a light source is blocked a shadow is formed.

Classifying

Classify a range of objects as either light sources or light reflectors.

Comparing

Compare how the size, shape and sharpness of shadows can change, using equipment or models.

Safety

Recognise that light from the Sun is damaging for vision and the skin, and how we can protect ourselves

Seasonal Change

Identifying and Naming

Effects of Weather

Recording the Weather

The Seasons

Day Length

Forces

  • compare how things move on different surfaces
  • notice that some forces need contact between 2 objects, but magnetic forces can act at a distance
  • observe how magnets attract or repel each other and attract some materials and not others
  • compare and group together a variety of everyday materials on the basis of whether they are attracted to a magnet, and identify some magnetic materials
  • describe magnets as having 2 poles
  • predict whether 2 magnets will attract or repel each other, depending on which poles are facing

Identifying and Naming

Name a range of familiar daily activities which rely upon or are caused by forces and magnets.

Physical Processes

Describe forces in action (pulling and pushing) and whether the force requires direct contact between objects or whether the force can act at distance (magnetic force).

Phenomena

Explain the terms ‘magnetic attraction’ and ‘repulsion’ and‘ magnetic poles’, using a model for assistance.

Testing

Make predictions, explaining thinking then test a range of magnets for their strength and polarity.

Comparing

Compare how an object moves over surfaces made from different materials, making predictions and measuring the distance travelled.

Classification

Sort and group materials into those that are magnetic and those that are not and identify patterns within the groups.

Electricity

Identifying and Naming

Series Circuits

Circuit Symbols

Current and Voltage

Conductors and Insulators

Safety

Create rules that show an understanding of electrical safety requirements in the home.

Substance, Matter and Materials

Pupils should be taught to:

  • compare and group together different kinds of rocks on the basis of their appearance and simple physical properties
  • describe in simple terms how fossils are formed when things that have lived are trapped within rock
  • recognise that soils are made from rocks and organic matter

Identifying and Naming

Identify and name a range of rocks and soils, describing how fossils are formed (link to evolution).

Classification

Classify and group rocks according to their appearance or physical properties, using a hand lens or digital microscope and identifying whether they are granular, crystalline or fossilised.

Uses

Suggest reasons why certain rocks or stones are used for a specific purpose.

Physical Processes

Explain the terms ‘weathering’ and ‘erosion’ and describe the effect they have on different types of rocks and soils.

Physical Properties

Investigate the physical properties of one or a number of rock types and relate their properties to their appearance.

Comparisons

Compare in detail a range of rock or soil samples from the locality, using simple tables and diagrams to present their findings.

Plants

Pupils should be taught to:•identify and describe the functions of different parts of flowering plants:

  • roots, stem/trunk, leaves and flowers
  • explore the requirements of plants for life and growth (air, light, water, nutrients from soil, and room to grow) and how they vary from plant to plant
  • investigate the way in which water is transported within plants
  • explore the part that flowers play in the life cycle of flowering plants, including pollination, seed formation and seed dispersal
  • identify that animals, including humans, need the right types and amount of nutrition, and that they cannot make their own food; they get nutrition from what they eat
  • identify that humans and some other animals have skeletons and muscles for support, protection and movement

Identifying and Naming

Identify and describe the functions of common plant parts. Explain how their structure is suited to their function (e.g.roots are long and branched to provide good anchorage).

Classification

Sort and classify a range of seeds into broad dispersal methods,such as wind (dandelion), water(coconut) or animal (yew).

Plant Parts and Their Functions

Draw a simple diagram to show how water is transported through a plant.

Habitats and Adaptation

Compare and describe how requirements for growth vary from plant to plant and how this relates to a plant’s environment, such as with climbing and alpine plants.

Growth and Survival

Recognise that plants make their own food necessary for growth and survival, storing it in their leaves.

Life Cycles

Order pictures showing the stages in the life cycle of a plant.

Seasonal Changes

Allocate different stages of a plant’s life cycle to different seasons, suggesting reasons why the stages occur when they do.

Comparisons

Compare and explain the effect of different factors on plant growth, including light and nutrition.

Animals Including Humans

Identification and Naming

Identify some of the most important bones in animals such as skull, ribs and spine,describing their primary functions.

Classification

Classify and group animals into vertebrates or invertebrates.

Habitats, Adaptation and Interdependance

Know that animals, including humans, cannot make their own food, by investigating food chains and recognise that all food begins with a plant.

Growth, Health and Survival

Describe how each of the main food groups specifically benefit the human body for growth and health.

Diet and Teeth

Identify the different food groups and design a healthy meal based on these food groups.

The Body

Describe how the skeleton and muscles work together to support, protect and assist movement.

Life Cycles

Comparing

Compare the diets of a herbivore and carnivore with (typically) omnivorous humans.

Evolution and Inheritance

Identifying and Naming

Identify a range of fossilised animals and plants from pictures.

Inheritance

Evolution

Adaptation

Fossils

Define what a fossil is and how they are formed.

The Future

Suggest what the fossils of the future may be.

Substance, Matter and Materials

During years 3 and 4, pupils should be taught to use the following practical scientific methods, processes and skills through the teaching of the programme of study content:

  • asking relevant questions and using different types of scientific enquiries to answer them
  • setting up simple practical enquiries, comparative and fair tests
  • making systematic and careful observations and, where appropriate, taking accurate measurements using standard units, using a range of equipment, including thermometers and data loggers
  • gathering, recording, classifying and presenting data in a variety of ways to help in answering questions
  • recording findings using simple scientific language, drawings, labelled diagrams, keys, bar charts, and tables
  • reporting on findings from enquiries, including oral and written explanations, displays or presentations of results and conclusions
  • using results to draw simple conclusions, make predictions for new values, suggest improvements and raise further questions
  • identifying differences, similarities or changes related to simple scientific ideas and processes
  • using straightforward scientific evidence to answer questions or to support their findings.

Asking and Answering Question

Use ideas to pose questions,independently, about the world around them.

Investigating

Discuss enquiry methods and describe a fair test.

Observing

Make decisions about what to observe during an investigation.

Equipment and Measuring

Take accurate measurements using standard units.

Identifying and Classifying

Talk about criteria for grouping, sorting and categorising, beginning to see patterns and relationships.

Recording and Reporting on Findings

Record their findings using scientific language and present in note form,writing frames, diagrams, tables and charts.

Analysing Data

Gather, record and use data in a variety of ways to answer a simple question.

Drawing Conclusions

Draw, with help, a simple conclusion based on evidence from an enquiry or observation.

Year 4

Earth and Space

Identifying and Naming

Moons

Spherical Bodies

Day and Night

Day Length and the Seasons

Light and Sound

Pupils should be taught to:

  • identify how sounds are made, associating some of them with something vibrating
  • recognise that vibrations from sounds travel through a medium to the ear
  • find patterns between the pitch of a sound and features of the object that produced it
  • find patterns between the volume of a sound and the strength of the vibrations that produced it
  • recognise that sounds get fainter as the distance from the sound source increases

Identifying and Naming

Listen to and be able to identify a variety of familiar sounds and what is vibrating in each case.

Phenomena

Describe how sound travels through a medium to the outer ear and how sound is transferred to the inner ear.

Physical Processes

Describe and demonstrate how the volume or pitch of a sound can be altered, using a range of equipment such as musical instruments.

Classifying

Investigate and classify materials for their ability to insulate against sound.

Comparing

Measure and compare the volume of a sound at different distances from its source, using appropriate equipment.

Safety

Recognise that certain sounds can be damaging for hearing and identify ways in which the ear can be

Seasonal Change

Identifying and Naming

Effects of Weather

Recording the Weather

The Seasons

Day Length

Forces

  • compare how things move on different surfaces
  • notice that some forces need contact between 2 objects, but magnetic forces can act at a distance
  • observe how magnets attract or repel each other and attract some materials and not others
  • compare and group together a variety of everyday materials on the basis of whether they are attracted to a magnet, and identify some magnetic materials
  • describe magnets as having 2 poles
  • predict whether 2 magnets will attract or repel each other, depending on which poles are facing

Identifying and Naming

Identify how the magnetic north and south pole is different to the geographical north and south pole.

Physical Processes

Demonstrate using models or actions, the key forces in action during a given activity.

Phenomena

Develop research skills, using secondary sources (e.g. finding out why aurora form at the north and south magnetic poles).

Testing

Test whether any materials block magnetic attraction

Comparing

Compare the speed in which objects fall to the ground through the same distance of air or water, using their knowledge of forces to explain the outcomes.

Classification

Electricity

Pupils should be taught to:

  • identify common appliances that run on electricity
  • construct a simple series electrical circuit, identifying and naming its basic parts, including cells, wires, bulbs, switches and buzzers
  • identify whether or not a lamp will light in a simple series circuit, based on whether or not the lamp is part of a complete loop with a battery
  • recognise that a switch opens and closes a circuit and associate this with whether or not a lamp lights in a simple series circuit
  • recognise some common conductors and insulators, and associate metals with being good conductors

Identifying and Naming

Identify and name a range of familiar devices and equipment that require electricity for power.

Series Circuits

Construct operational simple series circuits, using a range of components and switches for control, and use these to make simple devices.

Circuit Symbols

Predict if a circuit will work based on whether it is a complete loop and draw simple circuits, using their own or conventional circuit symbols.

Current and Voltage

Recognise that a cell (battery)is a power source, generating and pushing current (electricity) through a circuit, and by adding cells the power source increases.

Conductors and Insulators

Sort and classify materials into those that are conductors and those that are insulators,identifying similarities within the groups.

Safety

Recognise the dangers of working with electricity and explain how to work safely.

Substance, Matter and Materials

Pupils should be taught to:

  • compare and group materials together, according to whether they are solids, liquids or gases
  • observe that some materials change state when they are heated or cooled, and measure or research the temperature at which this happens in degrees Celsius (°C)
  • identify the part played by evaporation and condensation in the water cycle and associate the rate of evaporation with temperature

Identifying and Naming

Identify how water changes state, using the correct terminology and relate these key processes to the water cycle.

Classification

Classify everyday materials asa solid, liquid or gas at room temperature.

Uses

Describe a material whose use changes as its state changes.

Physical Processes

Explain the effect of heating and cooling on a range of substances, including water.

Physical Properties

Describe the properties of solids, liquids and gases, giving examples of each (e.g. solids retain their shape).

Comparisons

Measure or research the temperature, in degreesCelsius ( ̊C), at which materials change state and compare to the temperatures at which water changes state.

Plants

Pupils should be taught to:

  • recognise that living things can be grouped in a variety of ways
  • explore and use classification keys to help group, identify and name a variety of living things in their local and wider environment
  • recognise that environments can change and that this can sometimes pose dangers to living things
  • describe the simple functions of the basic parts of the digestive system in humans
  • identify the different types of teeth in humans and their simple functions
  • construct and interpret a variety of food chains, identifying producers, predators and prey

Identifying and Naming

Identify and name a variety of plants in the local and a contrasting environment from their physical appearance.

Classification

Use classification keys to classify plants into groups, such as flowering or non-flowering plants, or compound, palmate or single blade leaves.

Plant Parts and Their Functions

Identify uncommon, specialised plant parts such as tendrils and suckers and explain their functions.

Habitats and Adaptation

Describe how a plant’s habitat may naturally change throughout the year and how plants adapt to these changes.

Growth and Survival

Explain how humans can impact on a plant’s environment in both positive and negative ways, giving examples from their locality.

Life Cycles

Draw a labelled diagram to show the life cycle of a familiar plant, including germination, flower production, pollination, seed formation and seed dispersal.

Seasonal Changes

Describe in detail the changes that occur in a familiar tree or plant over the seasons.

Comparisons

Compare plants growing in a local habitat to those in a contrasting one, such as a cacti in the desert, and notice how they are adapted.

Animals Including Humans

Identification and Naming

Identify, producers, predators and prey in a given food chain and define the terms.

Classification

Develop own classification keys and assign living things to groups, using their keys.

Habitats, Adaptation and Interdependance

Construct a variety of food chains and explain what would happen if one of the parts of the chain became ‘unavailable’.

Growth, Health and Survival

Identify different foods that can affect the health of teeth and know the importance of good oral hygiene.

Diet and Teeth

Identify the different types of teeth and their functions, including how these vary from animal to animal and animal to human.

The Body

Identify body parts associated with the digestive system, such as mouth, tongue, teeth, oesophagus, stomach and intestine and describe their special functions.

Life Cycles

Comparing

Compare and contrast the digestive system of a herbivore, with a carnivore, using their knowledge of the parts of the human digestive system, including end products.

Evolution and Inheritance

Identifying and Naming

Inheritance

Evolution

Adaptation

Fossils

The Future

Substance, Matter and Materials

During years 3 and 4, pupils should be taught to use the following practical scientific methods, processes and skills through the teaching of the programme of study content:

  • asking relevant questions and using different types of scientific enquiries to answer them
  • setting up simple practical enquiries, comparative and fair tests
  • making systematic and careful observations and, where appropriate, taking accurate measurements using standard units, using a range of equipment, including thermometers and data loggers
  • gathering, recording, classifying and presenting data in a variety of ways to help in answering questions
  • recording findings using simple scientific language, drawings, labelled diagrams, keys, bar charts, and tables
  • reporting on findings from enquiries, including oral and written explanations, displays or presentations of results and conclusions
  • using results to draw simple conclusions, make predictions for new values, suggest improvements and raise further questions
  • identifying differences, similarities or changes related to simple scientific ideas and processes
  • using straightforward scientific evidence to answer questions or to support their findings.

Asking and Answering Question

Suggest relevant questions and know that they could be answered in a variety of ways, including using secondary sources such as ICT.Answer questions using straightforward scientific evidence.

Investigating

Make decisions about different enquiries, including recognising when a fair test is necessary and begin to identify variables.

Observing

Make systematic and careful observations.

Equipment and Measuring

Take accurate measurements using standard units and a range of equipment, including thermometers and data loggers.

Identifying and Classifying

Identify similarities/differences/changes when talking about scientific processes. Use and begin to create simple keys.

Recording and Reporting on Findings

Choose appropriate ways to record and present information, findings and conclusions for different audiences (e.g. displays, oral or written explanations).

Analysing Data

Identify, with help, changes, patterns, similarities and differences in data to help form conclusions. Use scientific evidence to support their findings.

Drawing Conclusions

Use recorded data to make predictions, pose new questions and suggest improvements for further enquiries.

Year 5

Earth and Space

Pupils should be taught to:

  • describe the movement of the Earth and other planets relative to the sun in the solar system
  • describe the movement of the moon relative to the Earth
  • describe the sun, Earth and moon as approximately spherical bodies
  • use the idea of the Earth’s rotation to explain day and night and the apparent movement of the sun across the sky

Identifying and Naming

Name the eight planets of the solar system and describe their position and movement relative to the Sun and neighbouring planets.

Moons

Describe what a moon is, how they maintain an orbit around a planet and which planets in our solar system have them.

Spherical Bodies

Describe what a moon is, how they maintain an orbit around a planet and which planets in our solar system have them.

Day and Night

Explain day and night using the Earth’s rotation, correct terminology and a model if required.

Day Length and the Seasons

Explain how the Earth’s ‘position’ affects day length.

Light and Sound

Pupils should be taught to:

  • recognise that light appears to travel in straight lines
  • use the idea that light travels in straight lines to explain that objects are seen because they give out or reflect light into the eye
  • explain that we see things because light travels from light sources to our eyes or from light sources to objects and then to our eyes
  • use the idea that light travels in straight lines to explain why shadows have the same shape as the objects that cast them

Identifying and Naming

Identify by investigation if and how light and sound travel through space, using specific examples to validate their thinking.

Phenomena

Investigate shadows in relation to times of day and explain why the Sun appears to move across the sky.

Physical Processes

Describe the Earth’s rotation to explain day and night.

Classifying

Comparing

Compare day lengths during different seasons and provide an explanation for why they differ.

Safety

Recognise that it isn’t safe to look directly at the Sun, even when wearing dark glasses.

Seasonal Change

Identifying and Naming

Effects of Weather

Recording the Weather

The Seasons

Day Length

Forces

Pupils should be taught to:

  • explain that unsupported objects fall towards the Earth because of the force of gravity acting between the Earth and the falling object
  • identify the effects of air resistance, water resistance and friction, that act between moving surfaces
  • recognise that some mechanisms including levers, pulleys and gears allow a smaller force to have a greater effect

Identifying and Naming

Identify and define the opposing forces that act upon objects moving through air, water or along a surface.

Physical Processes

Describe the force of gravity,what causes it and how the force of gravity changes (e.g. if we were standing on a different planet). Use study skills to research the work of scientists such as Galileo and Newton.

Phenomena

Demonstrate, using a model, how simple levers, gears and pulleys assist the movement of objects using less force.

Testing

Make predictions, supported by scientific reasoning to test the effects of friction on movement and distance travelled.

Comparing

Compare the speed with which objects of different shapes and surface area fall through the air or water, and explain the reason for any differences in terms of the forces acting on the objects.

Classification

Classify and group forces based on their actions or whether they act directly, or at distance.

Electricity

Identifying and Naming

Series Circuits

Circuit Symbols

Current and Voltage

Conductors and Insulators

Safety

Substance, Matter and Materials

Pupils should be taught to:

  • compare and group together everyday materials on the basis of their properties, including their hardness, solubility, transparency, conductivity (electrical and thermal), and response to magnets
  • know that some materials will dissolve in liquid to form a solution, and describe how to recover a substance from a solution
  • use knowledge of solids, liquids and gases to decide how mixtures might be separated, including through filtering, sieving and evaporating
  • give reasons, based on evidence from comparative and fair tests, for the particular uses of everyday materials, including metals, wood and plastic
  • demonstrate that dissolving, mixing and changes of state are reversible changes
  • explain that some changes result in the formation of new materials, and that this kind of change is not usually reversible, including changes associated with burning and the action of acid on bicarbonate of soda

Identifying and Naming

Identify a wide range of reversible and irreversible changes that are in use in everyday life

Classification

Classify and group mixtures for how they can be separated, including sieving, filtering and evaporating.

Uses

Provide evidence and reasons why a material has been chosen for a specific use. Scientifically and systematically compare the functionality of a range of materials to perform a specific function.

Physical Processes

Describe what happens when a solute dissolves in a solvent to form a solution and how this process can be reversed.

Physical Properties

Describe comprehensively some familiar and unfamiliar material’s physical properties, including transparency, conductivity, solubility and magnetism.

Comparisons

Measure or research the temperature, in degrees Celsius ( ̊C), at which materials change state and compare to the temperatures at which water changes state.

Plants

Pupils should be taught to:

  • describe the differences in the life cycles of a mammal, an amphibian, an insect and a bird
  • describe the life process of reproduction in some plants and animals
  • describe the changes as humans develop to old age

Identifying and Naming

Identify the key structures involved in plant sexual reproduction.

Classification

Classify plant types according to how they reproduce.

Plant Parts and Their Functions

Explain why plants have flowers and why it is important for them to attract insects and other pollinators.

Habitats and Adaptation

Describe features of flowers, such as scent, colour, shape and size, and how they have evolved to ensure successful pollination.

Growth and Survival

Describe the different ways in which new plants can be grown from the parent plant, including seeds, bulbs, tubers, cuttings and grafting.

Life Cycles

Describe the process of plant reproduction using the correct scientific language. Observe/comment on/record plant life cycles.

Seasonal Changes

Grow a range of plants / vegetables from seeds, cuttings, tubers and bulbs across the different seasons and note the conditions needed for successful growth.

Comparisons

Make comparisons between asexual and sexual reproduction in plants, suggesting reasons why plants may reproduce in different ways.

Animals Including Humans

Identification and Naming

Identify, and present in an appropriate way, the key stages in human growth and development from birth to old age.

Classification

Describe how we define a mammal and how this relates to classification.

Habitats, Adaptation and Interdependance

Complete own research / watch documentaries, noting detail on animals and plants in their habitats. Include the work of naturalists such as Attenborough or Goodall.

Growth, Health and Survival

Describe the process of sexual reproduction in a familiar animal and why it is important for species survival.

Diet and Teeth

Make informed choices to maintain their health and well-being, explaining reasons for these

The Body

Describe the key physical changes in the male and female human body during puberty.

Life Cycles

Draw the life cycle of an insect, an amphibian, a bird and a mammal, highlighting the key differences and similarities.

Comparing

Compare key facts about mammalian gestation and birth and suggest reasons for variation within a species (e.g. typical gestation in humans being between 37-42 weeks).

Evolution and Inheritance

Identifying and Naming

Inheritance

Evolution

Adaptation

Fossils

The Future

Substance, Matter and Materials

During years 5 and 6, pupils should be taught to use the following practical scientific methods, processes and skills through the teaching of the programme of study content:

  • planning different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including recognising and controlling variables where necessary
  • taking measurements, using a range of scientific equipment, with increasing accuracy and precision, taking repeat readings when appropriate
  • recording data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams and labels, classification keys, tables, scatter graphs, bar and line graphs
  • using test results to make predictions to set up further comparative and fair tests
  • reporting and presenting findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations of and a degree of trust in results, in oral and written forms such as displays and other presentations
  • identifying scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas or arguments

Asking and Answering Question

Raise different types of scientific questions, and hypotheses.

Investigating

Plan a range of science enquiries,including comparative and fair tests.

Observing

Plan and carry out comparative and fair tests, making systematic and careful observations.

Equipment and Measuring

Take measurements using a range of scientific equipment with increasing accuracy and precision.

Identifying and Classifying

Use and develop keys to identify, classify and describe living things and materials.

Recording and Reporting on Findings

Record data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams, labels, classification keys, tables, bar and line graphs and models.

Analysing Data

Use relevant scientific language and illustrations to discuss, communicate and justify their scientific ideas.

Drawing Conclusions

Use a simple mode of communication to justify their conclusions on a hypothesis. Begin to recognise how scientific ideas change over time.

Year 6

Earth and Space

Pupils should be taught to:

  • describe the movement of the Earth and other planets relative to the sun in the solar system
  • describe the movement of the moon relative to the Earth
  • describe the sun, Earth and moon as approximately spherical bodies
  • use the idea of the Earth’s rotation to explain day and night

Identifying and Naming

Moons

Spherical Bodies

Day and Night

Compare times in other parts of the world and relate this to the use of time zones.

Day Length and the Seasons

Explain how the Earth’s ‘position’ affects day length.

Light and Sound

Pupils should be taught to:

  • recognise that light appears to travel in straight lines
  • use the idea that light travels in straight lines to explain that objects are seen because they give out or reflect light into the eye
  • explain that we see things because light travels from light sources to our eyes or from light sources to objects and then to our eyes
  • use the idea that light travels in straight lines to explain why shadows have the same shape as the objects that cast them

Identifying and Naming

Identify parts of the eye and draw a diagram showing how light enters our eyes in order to see, using the correct scientific vocabulary.

Phenomena

Describe how white light can be split using prisms and droplets of water and what colours white light is made from.

Physical Processes

Explain how light behaves and travels in straight lines. Demonstrate, using a model or diagram, how this explains why we can see objects and how shadows are formed.

Classifying

Classify a range of objects or surfaces for their reflective qualities using scientific test

Comparing

Compare how a beam of light changes direction (refraction) when passing through different mediums, such as water and air.

Safety

Recognise the dangers of using lasers and how they can be used safely

Seasonal Change

Identifying and Naming

Effects of Weather

Recording the Weather

The Seasons

Day Length

Forces

Identifying and Naming

Physical Processes

Phenomena

Testing

Comparing

Classification

Electricity

Pupils should be taught to:

  • associate the brightness of a lamp or the volume of a buzzer with the number and voltage of cells used in the circuit
  • compare and give reasons for variations in how components function, including the brightness of bulbs, the loudness of buzzers and the on/off position of switches
  • use recognised symbols when representing a simple circuit in a diagram

Identifying and Naming

Identify and name components of a circuit and define terms, such as voltage and current in relation to series circuits.

Series Circuits

Work scientifically to construct a series circuit for a specific device or outcome and explain how it works

Circuit Symbols

Draw a series circuit, using the conventional circuit symbols.

Current and Voltage

Describe the relationship between the number or voltage of a cell or cells and the effect it has on a bulb or buzzer for example

Conductors and Insulators

Predict materials that could be good conductors of electricity and conduct a fair test to show this.

Safety

Demonstrate how to work safely with electrical circuits.

Substance, Matter and Materials

Identifying and Naming

Classification

Uses

Physical Processes

Physical Properties

Comparisons

Plants

Pupils should be taught to:

  • describe how living things are classified into broad groups according to common observable characteristics and based on similarities and differences, including micro-organisms, plants and animals
  • give reasons for classifying plants and animals based on specific characteristics identify and name the main parts of the human circulatory system, and describe the functions of the heart, blood vessels and blood
  • recognise the impact of diet, exercise, drugs and lifestyle on the way their bodies function
  • describe the ways in which nutrients and water are transported within animals, including humans
  • recognise that living things have changed over time and that fossils provide information about living things that inhabited the Earth millions of years ago
  • recognise that living things produce offspring of the same kind, but normally offspring vary and are not identical to their parents
  • identify how animals and plants are adapted to suit their environment in different ways and that adaptation may lead to evolution

Identifying and Naming

Identify plants which have survived on Earth for millions of years and how we know this.

Classification

Devise classification keys to identify plants in the immediate environment. Give reasons for classification and understand the significance of scientists’ work, from study.

Plant Parts and Their Functions

Research and describe similarities and differences between petals, leaves, stamen and stigma on a variety of plants found in the locality and elsewhere.

Habitats and Adaptation

Describe how plants have adapted and ultimately evolved to suit their environments using specific examples.

Growth and Survival

Suggest why some plants have survived over time and some have not.

Life Cycles

Define the plant terms ‘annual’, ‘biennial’ and ‘perrenial’, describing differences in life cycles and identifying plants of each type.

Seasonal Changes

Identify relationships between the seasons and a typical plant life cycle using observations from the school environment.

Comparisons

Compare native plants with non-native plants and determine whether non-native plants can be classified in the same way as native plants.

Animals Including Humans

Identification and Naming

Identify the major parts of the human circulatory system and their functions.

Classification

Recognise the importance of the classification system and its inception, giving reasons for how the groups and subgroups are chosen.

Habitats, Adaptation and Interdependance

Describe how animals must be adapted to their habitats for survival, using a range of animals and their adaptations as examples.

Growth, Health and Survival

Recognise and describe the damaging impact that some drugs and other substances can have on the human body.

Diet and Teeth

Explain how nutrients and water are transported within humans and animals.

The Body

Describe how lifestyle is important for the health of the human circulatory system, contributing towards a class policy on exercise and diet choices.

Life Cycles

Describe how the life cycles of bacteria and viruses differ.

Comparing

Compare scientifically the effect that different exercises have on heart rate, making predictions and measuring heart rate accurately.

Evolution and Inheritance

Identifying and Naming

Identify features which are inherited from parents, such as eye colour and those that are not, such as tattoos and dyed hair colour.

Inheritance

Match offspring to their parents, linked to observable features and characteristics.

Evolution

Describe how variation in living things leads to the evolution of a species, using specific examples. Research the work of Darwin or Wallace to explain how the theory of evolution developed.

Adaptation

Identify how specific plants or animals have adapted to their environment.

Fossils

Explain how fossils are formed and how fossil discoveries have helped develop the theory of evolution.

The Future

Suggest ways in which future changes in the world’s climate may impact on ourselves and other living species, and suggest ideas for how we may adapt to these changes.

Substance, Matter and Materials

During years 5 and 6, pupils should be taught to use the following practical scientific methods, processes and skills through the teaching of the programme of study content:

  • planning different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including recognising and controlling variables where necessary
  • taking measurements, using a range of scientific equipment, with increasing accuracy and precision, taking repeat readings when appropriate
  • recording data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams and labels, classification keys, tables, scatter graphs, bar and line graphs
  • using test results to make predictions to set up further comparative and fair tests
  • reporting and presenting findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations of and a degree of trust in results, in oral and written forms such as displays and other presentations
  • identifying scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas or arguments

Asking and Answering Question

Pose/select the most appropriate line of enquiry to investigate scientific questions.

Investigating

Select and plan the most suitable line of enquiry, explaining which variables need to be controlled and why, in a variety of comparative and fair tests.

Observing

Make their own decisions about which observations to make, using test results and observations to make predictions or set up further comparative or fair tests.

Equipment and Measuring

Choose the most appropriate equipment in order to take measurements, explaining how to use it accurately. Decide how long to take measurements for, checking results with additional readings.

Identifying and Classifying

Identify and explain patterns seen in the natural environment.

Recording and Reporting on Findings

Choose the most effective approach to record and report results, linking to mathematical knowledge.

Analysing Data

Identify and explain causal relationships in data and identify evidence that supports or refutes their findings, selecting fact from opinion.

Drawing Conclusions

Identify validity of conclusion and required improvement to methodology. Discuss how scientific ideas develop over time.

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